Massimo Mazzucco

La Auschwitz del Vaticano - Note e riferimenti


Prima Parte

Seconda Parte

Terza Parte

Quarta Parte

Quinta Parte

Note e riferimenti


1- 1 - "Nazi Germany is no more. The Catholic Church is still here with us. More powerful than ever. With her own Press and the World Press at her bidding. Anything published about the atrocities in the future will not be believed. . ." Avro Manhattan - The Vatican's Holocaust (pagg. 107-108) LINK

1-2 - "Les Slaves catholiques concernés (Croates, Dalmates, Slovènes), quoique parfois rétifs, étaient un atout précieux dans les mains de l'État et l'Église autrichiens. Cette dernière, par le truchement d’un bas clergé discipliné, maintenait, contre les Slaves orthodoxes l’obéissance et la cohésion politique d’une marqueterie de populations". Annie Lacroix-Riz - Les cahiers de l’Orient, n° 59, 3e trimestre 2000, p. 79-101 LINK

1-3 - "All in all, Croats and Serbs are of two worlds, north pole and south pole, never will they be able to get together unless by a miracle of God. The schism (Eastern Orthodoxy) is the greatest curse in Europe, almost greater than Protestantism. Here there is no moral, no principles, no truth, no justice, no honesty". (Alexander, op .cit.) LINK

1-4 - "Whatever opinion the Catholic Church may now express about Hitler and his Nazi-Socialism, it stands 100 per cent with him and the other fascist dictators in this avowed objective of destroying the political and social order that came out of the Reformation and substituting therefor an integral, positive-Christian hierarchical confederation of states, similar to that which existed before Protestantism disrupted the authoritarian order of things in Central Europe." Leo Lehmann, Behind the Dictators

1-5 - “It was of interest to me that the Pope said to me on this occasion that Germany must become the sword of the Catholic Church. I remarked that the old Roman Empire of the German nation no longer existed, and that conditions had changed. But he stuck to his words.” Kaiser Wilhelm II on Pope Leo XIII - Leo Lehmann – Behind the Dictators, p. 22

1-6 - "Like many other Italian Catholic conservatives, Pius XI regarded a stable Fascist regime in Italy as a far more effective bulwark against Communism than democratic governments with their ever-changing coalitions could ever be." Under His Very Windows - The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy - by Susan Zuccotti - LINK

1-7 - Ivan Padjen - Church and State in Croatia - in Laws and Religion in post-communist Europe - pagg. 60-61. LINK

1-8 / 9 / 10 "Believe, Obey and Fight" (Credere, obbedire e combattere) - Tracy Koon pag. 138 - LINK

1-11 - “Nuestra bendición se dirige de modo especial a cuantos han asumido la difícil y peligrosa misión de defender y restaurar los derechos y el honor de Dios y de la religión” - LINK

1-12 - Frédéric Rossif, "Mourir a Madrid" - min. 18-20

1- 13 - National Catholicism (nacionalcatolicismo) was part of the ideological identity of Francoism, the dictatorial regime with which Francisco Franco governed Spain between 1936 and 1975. Its most visible manifestation was the hegemony that the Catholic Church had in all aspects of public and private life. Wikipedia - LINK

1-14 - To this end the Vatican helped to crush out the Catholic popular parties both in Italy and Germany and centralized all political matters in Rome. This insured to the dictators freedom from popular interference on the part of Catholics; it established a more complete dictatorial regime within the Catholic Church itself." - Leo Lehmann, "Behind the dictators" - pag. 49


Non vi sono link di riferimento per la seconda parte, oltre a quelli presentati nella pagina stessa.


3-1 "God, who directs the destiny of nations and controls the hearts of Kings, has given us Ante Pavelic and moved the leader of a friendly and allied people, Adolf Hitler, to use his victorious troops to disperse our oppressors... Glory be to God, our gratitude to Adolf Hitler and loyalty to our Poglavnik, Ante Pavelic." LINK

3-2 The pastoral letter, which was also published in Nedelja and Katolicki List on April 28, 1941, declared: “Honorable brethren, there is not one among you who did not recently witness the most significant event in the life of the Croatian people among whom we act as herald of Christ’s word. These are events that fulfilled the long-dreamed of and desired ideal of our people.... You should therefore readily answer my call to do elevated work for the safeguarding and the progress of the Independent State of Croatia.... Prove yourselves, honorable brethren, and fulfill now your duty toward the young Independent State of Croatia.” LINK

3-3 "The Jugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican", Vladimir Dedijer - Prometheus Books.

3-4 "REPORT ON ITALIAN CRIMES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND ITS PEOPLE" - Commissione Nazionale Jugoslava sui Crimini di Guerra (Belgrado, 1947) - pag. 161 (Il documento non è disponibile online)

3-5 "While the Vatican's Fascist associates were busy engineering political or terrorist activities, Catholic diplomacy—as previously in Spain, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, and France—came to the fore with the promotion of a powerful Catholic fifth column. This, which had already gnawed at the internal structure of Yugoslav unity, consisted of all those Croats infected with national-religious fanaticism, of the Catholic Hierarchy of Croatia, and of an illegal Nationalist Army composed of bands of Catholic terrorists, called the Ustashi, the last led by Ante Pavelic, supported by Vladimir Macek, leader of the Croat Peasant Party, who in 1939 arranged for Mussolini to finance him with 20 million diners for the Croat Separatist Movement, and by Archbishop A. Stepinac, leader of the Catholic Hierarchy in Croatia." - The Vatican's Holocaust - Avro Manhattan, Cap. 1 LINK

3-6 "L'Arcivescovo del genocidio" di Marco Aurelio Rivelli - LINK

3-7 Karlheinz Deschner - La politica dei papi nel XX secolo, Edizioni Ariele LINK

3-8 "Le haut-clergé de l'église catholique croate avait établi la coopération la plus étroite avec les autorités oustachis. A sa tête se trouvait l'archevêque de Zagreb Mgr Alojzije Stepinac, qui a salué la création du nouvel Etat et donné sa bénédiction à Ante Pavelic. La majorité des évêques catholiques (Mgr Saric de Sarajevo, Mgr Bonefacic de Split, Mgr Pusic de Hvar, Mgr Srebrenic de Krk, Mgr Buric de Senj, Mgr Aksamovic de Djakovo, Mgr Garic de Banja Luka, Mgr Mileta de Sibenik) ont activement travaillé à la propagation du régime oustachi et un certain nombre de prêtres et de moines portaient l'uniforme oustachi, tout particulièrement les franciscains de Bosnie qui ne dissimulaient nullement leur participation aux crimes." LINK

3-9 "L'Arcivescovo del genocidio" di Marco Aurelio Rivelli - LINK


4-1 "The Jugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican", Vladimir Dedijer - pag . 197

4-2 "The Jugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican", Vladimir Dedijer - pag . 154

4-3 - "Magnum Crimen", Viktor Novak - pagg. 651- 652 - Una delle fonti maggiormente accreditate dagli storici di tutto il mondo sulla storia del Vaticano nei Balcani è il libro "Magnum Crimen", scritto nel dopoguerra dal prete cattolico Viktor Novak. LINK

4-4 BRALO, BOZIDAR Catholic priest in the St. Joseph church in Sarajevo. Organized the slaughter of 180 Serbs on the Alipasa Bridge. After killing them, he danced the Croatian national dance, the Circle Dance, around their bodies before their bodies were thrown into the river. [...] Bralo also murdered thousands of Serbs in the concentration camp Jasenovac. He was a member of the Ustasha Parliament, together with Archbishop Stepinac. Personally slaughtered Serbs in the villages of Sabalj, Marsic-Gaj, Piskavica, Ponira, Biljevina, Kozara mountain, Sanski Most, Kamengrad and Grmec. Decorated by fascist Ante Pavelic. LINK

4-5 "The Jugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican", Vladimir Dedijer - pag . 216

4-6 REPORT ON ITALIAN CRIMES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND ITS PEOPLE" - Commissione Nazionale Jugoslava sui Crimini di Guerra (Belgrado, 1947) - pag. 62

4-7 REPORT ON ITALIAN CRIMES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND ITS PEOPLE" - Commissione Nazionale Jugoslava sui Crimini di Guerra (Belgrado, 1947) - pag. 29

4-8 "Les hauts dignitaires et les ecclésiastiques de l'église orthodoxe serbe étaient une cible privilégie des attaques oustachies. Sur le territoire de l'Etat Indépendant Croate il y avait 9 évêchés serbes, 1.100 églises, 31 monastères, 800 prêtres et 160 moines. Trois des principaux évêques, Mgr Platon Jovanovic de Banja Luka, Mgr Petar Zimonjic de Sarajevo,le métropolite de Bosnie et Mgr Sava Trlajic évêque de Karlovac ont été assassinés de manière brutale et le métropolite de Zagreb Mgr Dositej a été déporté à Belgrade après avoir été torturé. Dans le NDH près de 300 prêtres ont été tués cependant qu'un grand nombre étaient expulsés vers la Serbie. Dans le diocèse de Karlovac, 175 églises ont été incendiées, détruites ou fortement endommagées. Sur un nombre total de 189, seules 14 églises demeuraient intactes. Dans l'évêché de Pakrac, sur un total de 99 églises, 53 ont été incendiées, et 22 endommagées. Dans l'évêché de Dalmatie 18 églises ont été démolies et 55 endommagées sur un total de 109. Selon des informations qui sont parvenues au début de l'année 1945 au Patriarcat de Belgrade, sept églises ont été démolies et 6 fortement endommagées sur un total de 12 qui comptait le diocèse de Bosanska Dubica de l'évêché de Banja Luka. Dans le diocèse de Dubica, le nombre total des habitants serbes est tombé de 32.687 à 13.286. Sur l'ensemble du territoire du NDH, pendant les cinq ans de pouvoir oustachi, près de 400 églises et monastères serbes ont été démolis, cependant qu'un grand nombre, endommagés, servaient d'écuries, d'entrepôts, d'abattoirs pour le bétail ou de toilettes ouvertes au public. A Jasenovac, avant d'être entièrement détruite, l'église orthodoxe locale avait servi d'étable. Les destructions systématiques n'avaient même pas épargné les cimetières orthodoxes. Parmi les nombreux lieux de sépulture qui ont été saccagés, ceux qui ont été plus particulièrement endommagés ou plus exactement démolis et les sites labourés: citons, les cimetières dans les environs de Banja Luka, dans les cantons de Cajnice, de Brcko, Travnik, Mostar, Ljubinje, Slavonski Brod, Borovo, Tenja et bien d'autres." LINK

QUINTA PARTE (i link sono da completare)

5 - 1 "Holy Father! Since divine providence has made it possible that I take over the helm of my people and my homeland, I am firmly determined and wish fervently that the Croatian people, faithful to their laudable past, also in the future remain loyal to the holy apostle Peter and his followers and that our homeland, filled with the law of the New Testament, become Christ's kingdom. In this truly great work, I fervently ask the aid of Your Holiness. As such aid I first see that Your Holiness with Your highest apostolic authority recognize our state, then that You deign as quickly as possible to send Your representative, who will help me with Your fatherly advice, and finally that he impart to me and my people the apostolic blessing. Kneeling at the feet of Your Holiness. I kiss your sacred right hand as the obedient son of Your Holiness". . . "
The Jugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican", Vladimir Dedijer - pag. 78
5 - 2 - LINK
5 - 3 Church History, Cambridge University Press LINK
5 - 4 Although Pacelli collaborated in the writing and the distribution of the encyclical, he quickly undermined its effects by reassuring the Reich's ambassador in Rome. "Pacelli received me with decided friendliness," the diplomat reported back to Berlin, "and emphatically assured me during the conversation that normal and friendly relations with us would be restored as soon as possible."John Cornwell - Hitler's Pope - in Vanity Fair, 1999 LINK
5 - 5 In November 1939, in deepest secrecy, Pacelli became intimately and dangerously involved In what was probably the most viable plot to depose Hitler during the war. The plot centered on a group of anti-Nazi generals, committed to returning Germany to democracy. The coup might spark a civil war, and they wanted assurances that the West would not take advantage of the ensuing chaos. Pius XII agreed to act as go-between for the plotters and the Allies. Had his complicity in the plot been discovered it might have proved disastrous for the Vatican and for many thousands of German clergy. As it happened, leaders in London dragged their feet, and the plotters eventually fell silent. The episode demonstrates that, while Pacelli seemed weak to some, pusillanimity and indecisiveness were hardly in his nature.
John Cornwell - Hitler's Pope - in Vanity Fair, 1999 LINK

NOTA: Tutte le fotografie del clero croato, del campo di Jasenovac e dell'eccidio dei serbo-ortodossi in Croazia provengono dalla Cinemateca Nazionale Jugoslava, e sono in mostra permanente al Museo dell'Olocausto di Belgrado. Sono ampiamente diffuse in rete, e compaiono in tutti i più importanti libri che hanno trattato questo argomento. (v. Bibliografia Generale)